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PAIN

- Remove the PAIN is an obliged stage, for the functionality recovering!

- How TENS works

- The “GATE CONTROL” theory

- The ENDORPHINES

- The FREQUENCY of pulses in the analgesic stimulation

- Positioning of the electrodes in the analgesics stimulation

NMS Neuro Muscular Stimulation Techniques

- The wave shape

- The stimulation frequency

- The PULSE WIDTH

- The phases of electrostimulation

- Electrodes positioning

FES (functional stimulation)

- The stimulation level

- The threshold FES

INCONTINENCE

- Stress incontinence

- Urge incontinence, due to vesical instability.

- Mixed incontinence

- Perineal electrostimulation

- Effects of the perineal electrostimulation

- Weights for perineal exercises


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The phases of electrostimulation

    The muscular electrostimulation, like in case of a voluntary contraction, must foresee an ACTIVATION phase (stimulation), followed by a REST phase (pause). The REST phase is very important for the muscle; in fact during the contraction, the capillary circulation comes necessarily hindered and, if the muscle stays in contraction for along time, without a congruous phase of rest, it take place the so-called "ischemia," that is to say a limitation of the local blood circulation, so much harmful for any human tissues.

    The blood capillary flow, hindered during the contraction, but facilitated during the rest, constitutes the main feeding way for muscles; the muscles, particularly, draw some all the elements for the production of energy (oxygen, proteins and varied enzymes).

    The criterions of selection of STIMULATION time and  PAUSE time are fairly simple, also if necessarily empirical: the higher is the stimulation level, the smaller will be the ACTIVATION phase with respect the REST time. In substance: if I stimulate a muscle to get a maximal contraction, I will limit the contraction time to very few seconds and I’ll introduce, between each contraction and the next, a REST period equivalent to al least 5 times the contraction period.

    To simulate the voluntary contraction, or simply to make less annoying the stimulation, it could be advantageous introduce a PROGRESSION phase and a REGRESSION phase; we’ll call the two new phases respectively RISE time and FALL time.