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- Remove the PAIN is an obliged stage, for the functionality recovering!

- How TENS works

- The “GATE CONTROL” theory


- The FREQUENCY of pulses in the analgesic stimulation

- Positioning of the electrodes in the analgesics stimulation

NMS Neuro Muscular Stimulation Techniques

- The wave shape

- The stimulation frequency


- The phases of electrostimulation

- Electrodes positioning

FES (functional stimulation)

- The stimulation level

- The threshold FES


- Stress incontinence

- Urge incontinence, due to vesical instability.

- Mixed incontinence

- Perineal electrostimulation

- Effects of the perineal electrostimulation

- Weights for perineal exercises

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The wave shape

    The better wave shape to be used in the electro stimulation has been often subject of discussions and, in some cases also speculations.To obtain a stimulated muscular contraction, we are obliged to produce a depolarisation of one or more motor units.The better way is to apply a current flow on a motor point, that is to say the point where the nervous fibre innervates the muscle fibre. Being the human tissues very similar to a capacitor, from the electric point of view, it has been stated that the better effectiveness for the electro stimulation is obtained by using a pulse wave, having a very steep rising front. The better pulse width will match the chronaxy value of the muscle to be stimulated.A monophasic pulse could be used, but it has been demonstrated that a biphasic pulse is more comfortable, without reduction of the effectiveness. The biphasic pulse has no galvanic effect, so it is also suitable to be used over areas including metallic prosthesis.